Hole Ousia is beyond measurement.
Lennox and Gotthelf, in “Philosophical Issues in Aristotle’s Biology”:
Hans-Georg Gadamer, in “The Enigma of Health” :
In a poetic form by Peter J. Gordon:
This is a film about leucotomies undertaken for mental illness in the United Kingdom.
This film is not about psychosurgery after 1970.
This is a film about Edmonstone house and its designed landscape. It neighbours the Royal Edinburgh Infirmary, Little France.
My understanding is that planning has been approved for 173 homes.
The film ends with the voice of Tom Devine.
Music credit: “the Fresh Monday” by Dexter Britain
To be revalidated by the General Medical Council all UK doctors have to evidence participation in Continuing Medical Education (CME). This is based upon an accredited system of Continuing Professional Development (CPD).
CPD is mandatory.
This Hole Ousia post considers CPD for UK psychiatrists.
This week I was included in a circular e-mail that ‘sign-posted’ this free CPD educational opportunity for trainee psychiatrists. I was asked to share this with trainees.
BAP is acronym for the British Association of Psychopharmacology. I frequently hear colleagues describe it as “the place to go to” for CPD.
This is the current Calendar:
I have written on a number of occasions over the last few years to BAP about transparency of financial conflicts of interest:
BAP have now significantly improved on transparency and each speaker now has a link to any declared financial interests. This is available to professionals and public alike.
The declarations however give no details of amounts paid for any particular service.
BAP educational events are regularly advertised in the British Journal of Psychiatry
The Chief Executive of the Royal College of Psychiatrists recently offered this reassurance (Psychiatric Bulletin, December 2016):
Last year £340 million was paid by the Pharmaceutical Industry to UK healthcare workers for “promotional activities”.
There is currently a voluntary register (ABPI).
The BMJ reported this in March 2017:
As it stands, professionals, patients and public alike can have no clear understanding of where this £340 million went to in the UK for “promotional activities”.
However we do have evidence that promotional activity can lead to doctors recommending worse treatments for patients.
Returning to the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) calendar that the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP) is currently providing. It took me a full day to go through the declarations. These follow below, in alphabetical order of educator:
In summary it is encouraging to see these declarations of financial interests for BAP educators. This is a group of professionals who have a position of significant influence over the prescribing patterns of current and future psychiatrists. This means that even those doctors who regard themselves as not being subject to conflicts of interest may be indirectly influenced.
It is my concern that this potential influence is not always recognised by colleagues attending CPD in good faith and this is my reason for compiling this post.
Dr Robert Hutchison died in 1960, seven years before I was born. However, his appearance as depicted in the portrait (above) reminds me of Roald Dahl. One of his closest friends and colleagues described him in this way:
Dr Robert Hutchison, like Roald Dahl, is recalled for his wonderful way with language. One of my favourite quotes – about the profession in which we have shared across centuries – is by Hutchison. I still find it extraordinary that he wrote this in 1897:
Robert Hutchison was born at Carlowrie Castle, Kirkliston, in 1871.
In the early 1990s I lived with Sian in Kirkliston, at Humbie farm cottages. I was then studying Landscape Architecture at the University of Aberdeen and Sian was completing her GP training in Livingston:
In 1893 Robert Hutchison graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Edinburgh. Like me, he was a very young medical student, but unlike me he was far more promising.
Robert Hutchison delivered his first baby in 1894 at the Simpson Memorial Hospital Edinburgh. I was born in this same hospital 70 years later.
1897, aged just 26 years of age Robert Hutchison co-authored: Clinical Methods: A Guide to the Practical Study of Medicine:
This is still used and is now in its 23rd Edition!
Robert’s sister Isobel Wylie Hutchison was quite amazing. She was a poet, polyglot, painter, botanist and Arctic traveller. She could speak Italian, Gaelic, Greek, Hebrew, Danish, Icelandic, Greenlandic and some Inuit. Carlowrie remained a home for her to return to from travels, although the upkeep was hard and the castle did not have electricity until 1951. Isobel died at Carlowrie in 1982, aged 92.
Dr Gohar titled his response: Primum non nocere (first, do no harm). He summarised the potential harms from early detection which he said may include: overdiagnosis and overtreatment, false positive findings, additional invasive procedures, negative psychosocial consequences, and harmful effects on bodily function.
Dr Gohar confirmed his view [that]: “This does not mean that such early detection should be ignored but it means, as this article stresses, that early detection should be balanced. Critical assessment of early detection including early detection technologies and strategies in clinical practice is indispensable to avoid the persisting bias that early detection is only beneficial.”
This returned my thoughts to communications that I have had with Healthcare Improvement Scotland an NHS Board that is primarily guided by the American organisation: the Institute of Healthcare Improvement.
I have in Hole Ousia expressed my concerns about the approach taken to detection by Healthcare Improvement Scotland. My concerns have related to the lack of consideration of harms of “National Improvement” drives and the continued marginalisation of consent.
Robert Hutchison may have died seven years before I was born. But in 1897 he wrote words that I consider to be most prescient:
"From inability to let well alone; from too much zeal for the new and contempt for what is old; from putting knowledge before wisdom, science before art, and cleverness before common sense; from treating patients as cases; and from making the cure of the disease more grievous than the endurance of the same, Good Lord, deliver us."
This film ‘captures’ vintage cars arriving to Bridge of Allan for the rally held on Sunday 14th May 2017 at Strathallan park.
My camera was in two locations: opposite the Westerton and inside the gates of Lecropt Church.
The ‘borrowed words’ come from Iain Banks, William Carlos Williams and Hanya Yanagihara
Music credit: “Century” by Feist from the album ‘Pleasure’
The first in a series of films celebrating the work of Geoffrey Jellicoe.
Music Credit: “Alice”
Amisfiled Estate, by Haddington visited by Peter on 16th May 2017. I felt like Charles Ryder or indeed Sebastian from Brideshead Revisited.
A recent Independent Review for NHS Scotland stated that: “Informed consent is a fundamental principle underlying all healthcare”
The Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport, Shona Robison stated to the Scottish Parliament (17 March 2017): “Informed consent and shared decision making are expected prior to any procedure being carried out.”
On the 20th April 2017, I wrote to Healthcare Improvement Scotland about Patient consent in NHS Scotland:
I have just completed my annual Appraisal which is a General Medical Council requirement as part of 5 yearly Revalidation. As part of this I was informed by my Appraiser that I must comply with all the LearnPro modules which I have now done.
The following screenshot comes from the NHS Lothian mandatory LearnPro module on Capacity and Consent:
I apologise as the text is small, so I have reproduced verbatim what it states to me as an NHS Lothian employee:
“Consent is both a legal requirement and an ethical principle and requires to be obtained by healthcare professionals, prior to the start of any examination, treatment, therapy or episode of care.”
“In Scotland, everyone over the age of 16 is an adult. The law assumes that adults can make their own decisions and can sign legal documents, such as consent to medical treatment (in some circumstances this also can apply to children under the age of 16) provided they have the capacity. This means that they are able to understand what is involved in the proposed treatment, retain the information, be able to weigh up the information needed to make the decision and then communicate that decision. Treatment might be delivered in a hospital, clinic or in someone’s home.”
In years past I have written about consent for older adults in hospital in NHS Scotland:
I am writing to Healthcare Improvement Scotland as I find myself confused.
Do I follow the mandatory requirements of my employers on consent? Or do I follow the National Improvement requirements of OPAC-HIS where consent is not required for assessments such as the 4AT assessment test? (formerly called “4AT screening tool”)
I know, from the re-drafted Care Standards, that Healthcare Improvement Scotland take consent very seriously.
I should state that I am writing in my own capacity and in my own time.
12 May 2017 - I sent this update to Healthcare Improvement Scotland:
Forgive me for this further correspondence but I felt that I should update you on the learning that I received as part of my attendance for Continuing Medical Education (CME) yesterday.
This CME event was for the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Scotland – Faculty of Old Age Psychiatry and was held in Falkirk.
At this event the Chair of Old Age Psychiatry for the Royal College of Psychiatry was giving a talk and when the time came for questions I asked about the wide use of haloperidol in older adults in hospitals in NHS Scotland. Dr Thompsell replied “evidence has found that Haloperidol actually worsens the outcome of delirium”.
Another lecturer at this meeting, who was giving a talk on her area of expertise: anti-psychotics and older adults, was Dr Suzanne Reeve. She replied: “Haloperidol does increase mortality in older people compared with other antipsychotics. That message has been out for a while but has not really got across.”
The next talk was entitled “Successes of Old Age Psychiatry Liaison team” and one of the slides shown had the headline “Compliance with 4AT”. The impressive “compliance” figures then followed. The dictionary definition of compliance is “the act of yielding”.
My concern here is for patient harm and indeed increased patient mortality. National Improvement work undertaken by HIS has been instrumental in increasing “compliance” with tools such as the 4AT and it is clear that no consent is deemed necessary. I have argued that this is not ethical as these tools are often the beginning of “pathways” and “protocols” that may result in the administration of haloperidol.
I am genuinely worried that National Improvement work undertaken by Healthcare Improvement Scotland has not properly considered ethics, available evidence and the potential for unforeseen consequences. You will understand that I am also nervous about writing this letter given the consequences for me when I first “spoke up” three years ago:
I would very much value your advice. I am not sure that I can work in a profession if it loses sight of Hippocrates and “first do no harm”.
This is the response from Healthcare Improvement Scotland, dated 17th May 2017:
“Thank you for your letter of the 20th April and your letter of 12th May, in which you raise the interesting issue of taking consent in relation to cognitive screening.
I understand from staff involved in the inspections of older people’s care in hospital that taking of written consent prior to initial assessment for frailty is not routinely undertaken. Assessment at the point of admission, or where a change in a patient’s cognitive presentation is giving cause for concern, can alert staff to possible increased risk and enables planning of care for the patient. In these circumstances staff adopt a proportionate approach such as asking, for example, if they may ask some questions.
For absolute clarity though, as an employee of NHS Lothian, the requirements set out in the Board’s policies and mandatory training are those that you should follow.”
Submission on PE1517 on Polypropylene Mesh Medical Devices Made by Dr Peter J Gordon Date of submission: 17th May 2017 Submission made in a personal capacity.
The Agenda for the Public Petitions Committee meeting of the 18th May 2017 includes a most helpful summary “Note by the Clerk” on PE1517: Polypropylene Mesh Medical Devices (Document PPC/S5/17/10/1). Having read this carefully, and in accordance with the first suggested “Action” (point 45, page 8), I would like to offer evidence. Before doing so I have listed below the most relevant sections of PPC/S5/17/10/1 in relation to the points of evidence that I wish to make.
In Annexe B of PPC/S5/17/10/1 the Interim and Final Conclusions of the Independent Review are listed side-by-side.
Conclusion 1, both Interim and Final, was that “Robust clinical governance must surround treatment”
Conclusion 3, both Interim and Final, was that “Informed consent is a fundamental principle underlying all healthcare”
In Annexe C: Parliamentary Action (page 21 of PPC/S5/17/10/1) the Cabinet Minister for Health, Shona Robison answered question S5W-07749 by Neil Findlay, MSP on the 17 March 2017, by stating:
“Informed consent and shared decision making are expected prior to any procedure being carried out. The Chief Medical Officer goes into this in more detail in her Realistic Medicine report.”
The Clerk, in point 7, (page 2 of PPC/S5/17/10/1) confirms that:
“The Scottish Government does not have the power to regulate what medical devices are licensed for use in the UK. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medical devices in the UK”
The Clerk, in point 12 (page 3 of PPC/S5/17/10/1) includes quotations from the Preface of the Review’s Independent Report:
“We found some concerning features about how new techniques are introduced into routine practice” and that
“We are aware that some of our conclusions have wider implications and see the need to embed this in patient Safety and Clinical Governance strands of the NHS”
Points of Evidence by Dr Peter J Gordon (GMC number 3468861) • HDL62: the Scottish Government has acknowledged that this Guidance is not being followed by NHS Boards • There have been media reports that NHS professionals working in Scotland, who are involved in educating NHS staff about Mesh procedures, have been paid by commercial sectors who have financial interest in Mesh products. • PE1493, A Sunshine Act for Scotland, was closed in February 2016 • A Public Consultation on PE1493 was undertaken by the Scottish Health Council. The Scottish public, in majority, were of the view that it should be mandatory for all financial payments made to healthcare workers and academics to be declared in a publically accessible form • No meaningful update has been provided by the Scottish Government since this Public Consultation was published more than a year ago. • I fully support the Chief Medical Officer’s “Realistic Medicine” initiative and I have suggested that Sunshine legislation should be considered an essential part of this development • I agree with the Independent Review that “robust clinical governance must surround treatment”. I am concerned that if the current situation continues, where “education” of health professionals may be significantly based on marketing, further examples of iatrogenic harm may occur in NHS Scotland. • The Independent Review concluded that “informed consent is a fundamental principle underlying all healthcare”. If the advice given to patients is based on marketing, either partially or wholly, then informed consent may be denied patients. Further examples of Iatrogenic harm may then unfortunately occur and healthcare in Scotland may risk being considered as unrealistic rather than “realistic”.
Update, 22 May 2017:
Public Petitions Committee – Scottish Parliament: 18 May 2017 (click on image below to watch the full meeting)
The official report of the Public Petitions Committee of 18 May 2017
Sunday Post, 21 May 2017: ‘Probe to examine possible conflicts of interest in troubled mesh implant inquiry’
This film is about Auchenhard (Auchinhard) In West Lothian, Scotland.
A birth place of light.
Music credits: Badly Drawn Boy – “The Shining” and “Piano Theme”